Scotland Trips International

Kings and Queens of Scotland

The history of the Scottish monarchy has almost 900 years of history and begins, as it could not be less, wrapped in a veil of legend ...

For this reason, although historically it is impossible to verify it, we trust tradition when it tells us that Kenneth MacAlpin -descendant, according to him, of the legendary Fergus Mór-, was the first king of Scotland in the XNUMXth century. The truth is that Kenneth or Cináed unified under his command the Gaelic territories of Scotland and founded the House of Alpin, which would rule until the middle of the XNUMXth century.

The title of King of the Picts, that Kenneth held, would soon be replaced by that of King of Alba or of Scotland with his successor Donald II the Fool and his descendants.

With Duncan I the Sick, in 1034, the reign of the House of Dunkeld or Canmore opens. You probably know him as the elder king of the Macbeth of Shakespeare, although the truth is that they have little to do with each other. What is certain is that he was assassinated by Macbeth, the Red King, who would succeed him in 1040.

With Malcom III, whose wife and queen consort would be the famous Saint Margaret of Scotland, the Scoto-Norman period of Scottish history begins. And with Alexander III the Glorious and his granddaughter, the maiden Margaret of Norway - who died in 1290, at the age of seven - the house of Dunkeld finished.

Then a turbulent period known as the First Interregnum begins, which would lead to the disastrous coronation of John Balliol and the beginning of the English domination of Scotland with Edward I Longshanks.

In 1306, in the midst of the War of Independence against England, the greatest King of Scotland and national hero was crowned in Scone: Robert The Bruce or Robert I. He inaugurated the brief House of Bruce and, what is more important, won for Scotland independence from the power of England after the great victory of the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.

Next, the House of Stuarts begins its journey with Robert II of Scotland, at the end of the XNUMXth century. Few introductions are needed for this famous dynasty of kings and queens, which has among its ranks such names as the romantic James I, James II Ferocious Face, James V and his daughter, the beloved Queen Mary Stuart or Mary Queen of Scots.

María Estuardo was an extraordinarily controversial character whose turbulent reign, full of intrigue and betrayal, would end with her abdication in the person of her son James VI. Years later, in 1567, she would be executed in London by order of her cousin Elizabeth I of England who, although she never got to know her in person, always considered her a threat to the throne.

Since Elizabeth I of England died without issue, from James VI Stuart -from 1603-, all the kings of Scotland would also be of England and Ireland in a personal union, not political or territorial, of crowns.

In the middle of the seventeenth century the British political situation entered a more than turbulent phase and the next king, Charles I Stuart, would be executed in 1649 in an unprecedented act. As a consequence, the kingdom of Scotland would be abolished by the Cromwell government for eight years.

In 1660, once the monarchy and independence of Scotland were restored, Charles II Stuart and his legitimate successors would occupy the throne until the one who is considered the last queen of Scotland and England and the first of Great Britain: Anne I Stuart. She would also be the last queen of the Stuart House, since the House of Hannover would succeed her.

Finally, in 1707, with the Laws of Union, the title of King or Queen of Scotland would disappear forever.

Various Jacobite suitors, such as the Old Pretender or his heir, Bonnie Prince Charlie, would attempt to raise up the Highland clans to restore the Stuarts to the throne of Great Britain. They would never achieve their purpose and, after the sad defeat of the Battle of Culloden in 1746, the last Stuarts would assume their fate with resignation until the death without issue of Henry I in 1807: with him close almost a thousand years of Scottish history.

Stirling Tours - Stirling Castle
King Robert The Bruce

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